By Clare Austin and Sir Roberg De Zouche Hall, K.C.M.G., F.S.A.
Reprinted fromSomerset Archaeology and Natural History: the Proceedings of the Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society -
Every effort has been made to try to determine the copy right of this publication.
Our initial interest was in the development of house plan, mainly related to the improvements of the 16th century. This was seen to take a variety forms, and the only generalisation that can be made is that, as very frequent in Somerset, all of the old houses emerged with cross-
i. Crucks and post-
ii. Axial timbers.
b. Walls andpartitions
i. End walls.
These are distinguished from side walls because of the very characteristic appearance, where they have survived. The posts-
ii. Side walls.
At the front, all of the houses are now faced in rubble. In some cases, this is obviously newer than what was there in the first place, but in two houses at least it appeared to be original9. At the back, cob survives in several cases. There was no evidence of early timber-
iii. Internal partitions. These are usually timber-
c. Smoke bays, firehoods and chimney stacks
i. Smoke bays.
In two houses, 111 iv and v, the original arrangement for voiding smoke was by the construction of a short bay integral with and at the end of the house. In one case this was visibly of post-
Firehoods have been found in a number of areas other than Somerset, and in a variety of forms, ranging from a sort of daubed basket to a carefully framed timber structure, in which the spaces are filled by daub on rods. In Stocklinch, they have been found in every house studied except 111 vii, and are of the latter type. They are clearly distinguished from smoke bays, since they are superstructures to fireplaces created later than the building of the house. Such fireplaces usually have stone backs and sides (though the inner side may be timber-
Several examples have come to light elsewhere, mostly within a few miles, and we have ventured to distinguish two types, here designated FH1 and FH2. FH1 has rectangular timber-
iii. Chimney stacks. The term is limited to rubble and mortar stacks. These, save for one lateral stack in house III ii, always project into a room, being carried on the lintel, sides and back of the fireplace.
d. Stop on beams
The dominant form in Somerset is that described in Fox and Raglan's Monmouthshire Houses as a 'curve made with a draw knife from the arris to a vertical set-